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Chronological Reasoning and Causation

Factory Conditions: How did immigrants respond to challenges?

  1. Load Two Factory Workers, c. 1912 in Main Image Viewer
  2. Load Young Boy at Work, 1912 in Main Image Viewer
  3. Load Time Card for Female Worker, 1911 in Main Image Viewer
  4. Load Time Card for Female Worker, 1911 in Main Image Viewer
  5. Load Amalgamated Clothing Workers of America, Union Label, 1941 in Main Image Viewer
  6. Load Cluttered factory room, no. 1 in Main Image Viewer
  7. Load In Support of Child Labor: Telegram from Mrs. Oliver S. Chatfield to Gov. Lehman in Main Image Viewer
  8. Load Look for the Union Label in Main Image Viewer

Suggested Teaching Instructions

Setting the Stage
What is a factory? Show video clip from PBS Learning Media about a child working in a shoe factory.
Women and Children in the Workforce


Learning Standards and Practices
4.7 IMMIGRATION AND MIGRATION FROM THE EARLY 1800S TO THE PRESENT: Many people have immigrated and migrated to New York State contributing to its cultural growth and development. (Standards: 1, 3, 4, 5; Themes: ID, MOV, CIV, ECO, EXCH)
4.7a Immigrants came to New York State for a variety of reasons. Many immigrants arriving in New York City were greeted by the sight of the Statue of Liberty and were processed through Ellis Island.
Ø Students will trace the arrival of various immigrant groups to New York State in the mid-1800s, 1890s, 1920s, mid-1900s, 1990s, and today; examining why they came and where they settled, noting the role of the Irish potato famine.
Ø Students will explore the experiences of immigrants being processed at Ellis Island and what challenges immigrants faced.
Ø Students will investigate factory conditions experienced by immigrants by examining sweatshops, the Triangle Shirtwaist Fire, the use child labor, and the formation of labor unions.