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Interpreting the Evidence

"Hospital Strike Won!" Flyer, Local 1199, New York City, 1959

  • Documents in this Activity:
  • Historical Eras:

    Postwar United States (1945 - 1970)

  • Thinking Skill:

    Historical Analysis & Interpretation

  • Grade Level:

    Middle School
    High School
    College University

  • Topics:


  • Primary Source Types:


  • Regions:

    New York City

  • Creator:

    NYS Archives Partnership Trust Education Team

  1. Load Hospital Strike Won! Flyer, Local 1199, New York City, 1959 in Main Image Viewer

Suggested Teaching Instructions

Document Description
Flyer from Local 1199 announcing successful hospital workers' strike, in English and Spanish, ca. 1959
Historical Context
American labor unions arose out of the need for workers to organize themselves and work together to demand fair wages, safety in the workplace, and job security. A collective voice could not be ignored by employers as easily as individual protests, and workers who banded together could engage in strikes and other joint activities to strengthen their hand in bargaining with management. In the 1950s, hospital employees were not yet unionized, and labor laws that were coming into effect at the time did not apply to them. Early attempts to organize hospital workers focused mostly on skilled labor. In 1957, Local 1199 began to reach out to these workers.

Local 1199 first began as a pharmacists’ union, but it encouraged and supported diversity among its membership from the very beginning. It is not surprising, therefore, that the union reached out to the population of mostly Black and Hispanic hospital workers. The union’s first major success occurred in 1958, when it succeeded in organizing the employees of Montefiore Hospital in the Bronx section of New York City.   This success led to increased membership, and by 1963, the union had quadrupled its membership.

Essential Question
How do immigrants impact the economy and culture of a community?
Check for Understanding
Summarize the main purpose of this flyer and explain why this message is targeted toward certain ethnic groups.
Historical Challenges
In history, progress for specific groups is often difficult because it must be balanced with the needs of others. Research and debate this topic: “Resolved, hospital employees have the right to stage labor walkouts or strikes in order to achieve better pay and working conditions.”
Research another union that was successful following a strike of its workers. Write a newspaper article describing the issues from the point of view of management and workers, people involved, and the settlement.
Interdisciplinary Connections
Science: How would a labor strike affect the quality of care for hospital patients?
Foreign Language: Translate into English the part of the document that is in Spanish.